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Go directly to the collection, Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age, in American Memory, or view a Summary of Resources related to the collection.

Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age is a rich collection of writings by prominent Puerto Rican political activists, authors, and historians. The collection consists of political pamphlets and monographs on government and politics, agriculture and botany, economics, education, and literature. Many of the early tracts, dating from the 1830s, are written in Spanish in a flowery style typical of the early nineteenth century and may be challenging even for students with a fluency in Spanish. Four books are in English, three pertaining to accounts of the Spanish-American War and one a travelogue of the island.

Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age is not a socially comprehensive view of Puerto Rican history. The books and pamphlets in the collection were written by highly educated men of European descent whose perspectives inevitably differed from the viewpoints of the majority of Puerto Ricans. The lower socio-economic strata of Puerto Rican society, including individuals of African descent, are either neglected or viewed through paternalistic lenses.

The collection contains documents that can be used to study both world history and U.S. history. In world history, students can explore the political and economic transformation of Spanish colonial possessions in Puerto Rico and, to a lesser degree, Cuba, in the nineteenth century. The collection also provides insights into the development of American expansionism during the Spanish-American War and the changing role of the United States in world affairs.

Photo of San Francisco Church, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
San Francisco Church, San Juan: the oldest church in
the city. From "The History of Puerto Rico, from the Spanish
Discovery to the American Occupation."

To effectively use Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age, students should examine "Related Resources" on the home page. Here students will find references to a number of American Memory collections that can be searched using Puerto Rico as the search term. In addition, students may be directed to The Spanish-American War in Motion Pictures for motion pictures produced between 1898 and 1901 using actual film footage and reenactments of battles during the Spanish- American War and Philippine Insurrection. Cartographic Items, gallery, presents a number of maps of the island in Map Collections: 1544-1999, the earliest dating from 1785. "In Search of a National Identity," a series of brief essays on the history of Puerto Rico in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, provides useful background information and context for the items in the collection.

World History: Transformations in the Americas

Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age provides insight into the political, economic, and social transformations in the Americas in the nineteenth century. In addition, documents in the collection can help readers relate the Spanish-American War to U.S. participation in Western imperial expansion in the late nineteenth century.

Photo of Salvador Brau.
Salvador Brau, noted Puerto Rican historian.
From "La colonización de Puerto Rico, des
de el descubrimiento de la isla hasta la
reversión á la corona española de los
privilegios de Colón."

The collection includes works by Salvador Brau, one of Puerto Rico’s leading historians. Brau’s "La colonización de Puerto Rico, desde el descubrimiento de la isla hasta la reversión á la corona española de los privilegios de Colón" is a classic study of the early period of Spanish rule in Puerto Rico, covering the years 1493-1550. He examined the impact of Spanish society on the native peoples and expressed considerable sympathy for their plight. Each chapter begins with a summary, and the appendices include copies of primary source documents important to the study of the island’s history.

In another work, "Puerto Rico y su historia: investigaciones críticas," Brau sought to correct factual errors in earlier works on Puerto Rico and relied on documents in the Archives of the Indies in Spain. He presented a copy of this study to General George W. Davis, Governor General of Puerto Rico, immediately after the close of the Spanish-American War.

In addition to being a historian, Brau was a journalist, novelist, and playwright. The collection includes an anthology of newspaper articles he wrote between 1880 and 1894. Titled "Ecos de la batalla. Artículos periodísticos," the anthology reflects the political ferment in Puerto Rico.


In the 1780s, Inigo Abbad y Lasierra, a Spanish-born Catholic priest, wrote a history of Puerto Rico from the Spanish discovery through the late eighteenth century, "Historia geográfica, civil y natural de la isla de San Juan Bautista de Puerto-Rico." Pedro Tomás de Córdoba, secretary to the Captain General of Puerto Rico, 1816-1836, continued Abbad’s history from 1783 to 1831. Volumes 2 through 5 are included in the collection under Abbad’s title, "Memorias geográfica." De Córdoba presents a biased view of Spanish control and justifies Spain’s continued control over the island. In the mid 1860s, José Julian Acosta y Calbo revised Abbad’s study and published a "new edition," including annotations incorporating his own liberal philosophy favoring abolition of slavery and a reduction in Spanish control over trade and commerce.

On September 23, 1868, several hundred peasants revolted against Spanish rule near the town of Lares in western Puerto Rico. Liberals called for the abolition of slavery, freedom of the press, and independence from Spain and drew up a provisional constitution. The revolutionary "Army of Freedom" was quickly suppressed in their first clash with Spanish troops in the town of San Sebastián. Despite the prompt defeat, the liberal revolution, known as the Grito de Lares, is considered the beginning of Puerto Rico’s struggle for independence. The collection contains one account of the revolution, "Historia de la insurrección de Lares" by José Pérez Moris, an opponent of the movement.

Photo of a person in chains.
From "La cuestion social en las Antillas

What do the information about Acosta and
this illustration from the cover of a pamphlet
published by the Secretaría de la Sociedad
Abolicionista Española in 1872 suggest
about slavery in Spanish colonies? How
could you test your hypothesis?

The collection includes Rafael de Labra’s "La república y las libertades de ultramar" on the short-lived republican government established in Spain in 1873 and its impact on Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Rudolph Adams Middeldyk’s "History of Puerto Rico" was the first major history of Puerto Rico written in English. In Chapter XXV, Middeldyk dealt with "Political Events in Spain and Their Influence on Affairs in Puerto Rico." Read Chapter XXV and consider these questions:

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Last updated 03/28/2008