- Incidence is the number of newly diagnosed cases during a specific time period.
- Mortality is the number of deaths during a specific time period.
- Survival is the proportion of patients alive at some point after the diagnosis of their cancer.
- Prevalence is the number of cases alive on a certain date.
- Lifetime Risk is the probability of developing or dying from cancer, in the course of one's lifespan.
- age-adjusted rate
- An age-adjusted incidence or mortality rate is a weighted average of the
age-specific incidence or mortality rates, where the weights are the proportions
of persons in the corresponding age groups of a standard million population.
The potential confounding effect of age is reduced when comparing age-adjusted
rates computed using the same standard million population.
annual percent change (APC)
- Annual Percent Change is used to measure trend or the change in rate over time. It is the 'average' annual rate
of change over the time series selected.
Annual Report to the Nation
- An annual update of cancer death rates, incidence rates (new cases), and
trends in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
the American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, and the North
American Association of Central Cancer Registries collaborate to create this
- A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. Read more about cancer.
- A measure of the incidence of cancer within the population and an estimate
of the financial, emotional, or social impact it creates. The burden of disease
is not borne equally by all population groups in the United States.
Cancer Statistics Review (CSR)
- An annual report containing the most recent incidence, mortality, and survival
statistics, published by the Cancer Statistics Branch of the NCI. It presents a broad
profile of the cancer burden.
- Complete Prevalence represents the proportion of people alive on a certain
day who previously had a diagnosis of the disease, regardless of how long
ago the diagnosis was, or if the patient is still under treatment or is considered
- A range of values that has a specified probability of containing the rate
or trend. The 95% (p-value = .05) and 99% (p-value = .01) confidence intervals
are the most commonly used.
- A crude rate is the number of new cases (or deaths) occurring in a specified
population per year, usually expressed as the number of cases per 100,000
population at risk.
delay adjusted rate
- A cancer rate adjusted for reporting delay, the time elapsed before a diagnosed
cancer case is reported to the NCI.
extent of disease
- Refers to the stage of the disease and details the degree to which the cancer has
advanced. Extent of disease records the number of lymph nodes involved, metastases
and size of primary tumor
- Fast Stats is designed to allow quick and easy access to key statistics
for all major cancer sites by age, sex, race, and geographic area. The statistics
include incidence, mortality, prevalence, and the probability of developing
or dying from cancer.
- Statistics reported by geographic location of the events (e.g., residence of
the cancer case)
- At the time the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Agency for
Research on Cancer (IARC) published their first monograph on Childhood Cancer
in 1988, Dr. R. Marsden published an annex giving a classification scheme
for childhood cancer that consisted of 12 groups based chiefly on histologic
type. The classification by Marsden has been modified and is now called the
International Classification of Childhood Cancers.
in situ cancer
- Early cancer that has not spread to neighboring tissue.
- Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it developed
and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues. Also called infiltrating or
- Statistical software for the analysis of trends using a regression model that describes
trends by a sequence of straight line segments, connected at "joinpoints" where
significant changes in trend have been calculated.
- A table for a given population listing, for each sex and each age from 0
to 120, how many members die at that age and how many survive one more year.
- Represents the proportion of people alive on a certain day who had a diagnosis
of the disease within the past x years.
- The percent change (PC) in a statistic over a given time interval is Percent
change = (Final value - Initial value) / Initial value * 100. A positive PC
corresponds to an increasing trend, a negative PC to a decreasing trend.
- The original tumor.
relative survival rate
- A specific measurement of survival where the rate is calculated by adjusting the rate to
remove all causes of death except cancer. It is the ratio of a cancer patient's chance of
surviving a given time interval to that of an average person of the same age and sex.
- The time elapsed before a diagnosed cancer case is reported to the NCI.
Currently, the NCI allows a standard delay of 22 months between the end of
the diagnosis year and the time the cancers are first reported to the NCI
in November, almost two years later.
- Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the NCI is a collection of population-based
cancer registries in the United States which collect and submit cancer incidence
and follow up data to the National Cancer Institute. The National Cancer Act
of 1971 mandated the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data useful
in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer leading to the establishment
of the SEER Program.
- SEER Program collects cancer incidence and survival data from the SEER registries,
geographic areas selected for inclusion in the SEER Program based on
their ability to operate and maintain a high quality population-based cancer
reporting system and for their epidemiologically significant population subgroups.
- A measure of the tendency for places that are near to each other to have more similar (positive correlation) or dissimilar (negative correlation) values of their statistics.
- The extent of a cancer within the body. If the cancer has spread, the stage
describes how far it has spread from the original site to other parts of the
- The standard error of a rate is a measure of the sampling variability of
standard million population
- A standard million population for a geographic area is a table giving the
number of persons in each age group 0, 1-4, ... , 85+ out of a theoretical
cohort of 1,000,000 persons that is distributed by age in the same proportions
as the population.
- A standard population for a geographic area, such as the U.S. or the world,
is a table giving the proportions of the population falling into the age groups
0, 1-4, 5-9,…, 80-84, and 85+.
- Describes a mathematical measure of difference between groups. The difference
is said to be statistically significant if it is greater than what might be
expected to happen by chance alone.
surveillance data (cancer)
- Measures of cancer incidence, morbidity, survival, and mortality for
persons with cancer. It also includes the assessment of genetic predisposition,
environmental and behavioral risk factors, screening practices, and the quality
of care from prevention through palliation.
trends over time
- The change in rate over time expressed as an annual percent change.
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