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  1. Glynn M, Rhodes P. Estimated HIV prevalence
    in the United States at the end of 2003
    Link to non-CDC web site. National HIV Prevention Conference; June 2005; Atlanta. Abstract T1-B1101.
  2. CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2004. Vol. 16. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2005:1–46.
  3. Hall HI, Ruiguang S, Rhodes P, et al. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA. 2008;300:520-529.
  4. CDC. Guidelines for national human immunodeficiency virus case surveillance, including monitoring for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR 1999;48(RR-13):1–28.
  5. CDC. Number of persons tested for HIV United States, 2002. MMWR 2004;53:1110-3.
  6. Rietmeijer CA , Kane MS, Simons PZ, et al. Increasing the use of bleach and condoms among injecting drug users in Denver : outcomes of a targeted, community-level HIV prevention program. AIDS 1996;10:291--8.
  7. Rhodes F, Malotte CK. HIV risk interventions for active drug users. In: S.Oskamp, S.Thompson, eds. Understanding HIV risk behavior: safer sex and drug use. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996:297--36.
  8. Gibson DR, Lovelle-Drache J, Young M, Hudes ES, Sorensen JL. Effectiveness of brief counseling in reducing HIV risk behavior in injecting drug users: final results of randomized trials of counseling with and without HIV testing. AIDS and Behavior 1999;3:3--12.
  9. Doll LS, O'Malley PM, Pershing AL, Darrow WW, Hessol NA, Lifson AR. High-risk sexual behavior and knowledge of HIV antibody status in the San Francisco City Clinic Cohort. Health Psychol 1990;9:253--65.
  10. Cleary PD, Van Devanter N, Rogers TF, et al. Behavior changes after notification of HIV infection. Am J Pub Health 1991;81:1586--90.
  11. Fox R, Odaka NJ, Brookmeyer R, Polk BF. Effect of HIV antibody disclosure on subsequent sexual activity in homosexual men. AIDS 1987;1:241--6.
  12. van Griensven GJP, de Vroome EMM, Tielman RAP, et al. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody knowledge on high-risk sexual behavior with steady and nonsteady sexual partners among homosexual men. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:596--603.
  13. Coates TJ, Morin SF, McKusick L. Behavioral consequences of AIDS antibody testing among gay men [Letter]. JAMA 1987;258:1889.
  14. Wenger NS, Kusseling FS, Beck K, Shapiro MF. Sexual behavior of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the need for intervention. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:1849--54.
  15. Desenclos J-C, Papaevangelou G, Ancelle-Park R, for the European Community Study Group on HIV in Injecting Drug Users. Knowledge of HIV serostatus and preventive behaviour among European injecting drug users. AIDS 1993;7:1371--7.
  16. Dawson J, Fitzpatrick R, McLean J, Hart G, Boulton M. The HIV test and sexual behavior in a sample of homosexually active men. Soc Sci Med 1991;32:683--8.
  17. Otten MW Jr, Zaidi AA, Wroten JE, Witte J, Peterman TA. Changes in sexually transmitted disease rates after HIV testing and posttest counseling, Miami, 1988 to 1989. Am J Pub Health 1993;83:529--33.
  18. Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N Eng J Med 2000;342:921--9.
  19. CDC. Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States, 2004. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005;16:16-45. Available at
  20. Tao G, Irwin KL, Kassler WJ. Missed opportunities to assess STDs in US adults during routine medical checkups. Am J Prev Med 2000;18:109--14.
  21. CDC. HIV prevention practices of primary care physicians
    ---United States
    , 1992. MMWR 1994;42:988--92 .
  22. Tiara DA, Safran DG, Seto TB, Rogers WH, Tarlov AR. The relationship between patient income and physician discussion of health risk behaviors. JAMA 1997;278:1412--7.
  23. Schwartz JS, Lewis CE, Clancy C, Kinosian MS, Radany MH, Koplan JP. Internists' practices in health promotion and disease prevention. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:46--53.
  24. Kassler WJ, Dillon GA, Haley C, et at. On-site, rapid HIV testing with same-day results and counseling. AIDS. 1997;11:1045–51.
  25. Horton T, Uniyal A, Smith LV, Curreri S, Kerndt P, Branson B. Feasibility of implementing rapid HIV testing in a community-based setting. National HIV Prevention Conference; Atlanta GA; July 2003. Abstract T2-C1503.
Last Modified: January 22, 2007
Last Reviewed: January 22, 2007
Content Source:
Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
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