United States National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Historical Collections Copyright Information

The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyright material found in NLM historical collections, which include Books and Journals, Digital Manuscripts, Archives and Modern Manuscripts, Prints and Photographs, and Films and Videos. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be "used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research." If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for copyright infringement. Transmission or reproduction of protected items beyond that allowed by “fair use” requires the written permission of the copyright owner. Users of material found in NLM historical collections are under obligation to determine and satisfy copyright restrictions when publishing or otherwise distributing this material.

NLM historical collections reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of the copyright law.

More information about fair use, copyright in general, and how to initiate a copyright search, contact the U.S. Copyright Office at (202) 707-5959 or visit www.loc.gov/copyright.

  • Further Copyright Information

    • Digital Manuscripts (Profiles in Science)

      Most of the digital material in Profiles in Science is protected by the U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17, U.S.C.). Whenever possible, we have provided information about the copyright owner of each document; this information appears in the "Rights" section of each metadata record. In some cases, it has not been possible to determine the current copyright owner. If you have information indicating who the copyright owner may be for these items, please contact us at profiles@nlm.nih.gov.

    • Prints and Photographs

      The Image database (IHM), is a catalog of the prints and photographs collection of the NLM. The purpose of the database is to assist users in finding illustrative material for private study, scholarship, and research. The NLM does not own the copyright to the images in the database, nor do we charge access or permission fees for their use.

    • Online Exhibitions

      Images used in online exhibitions come from a variety of sources and are protected by the U.S. Copy right Law. Please contact the History of Medicine Division’s reference desk for further assistance at hmdref@nlm.nih.gov or at 301-402-8878.

    • Films and Videos

      Films and videos in the NLM Historical Audiovisuals Collection may be duplicated if there are no donor restrictions, and if they are determined to be in the public domain or if written permission from the copyright holder has been received by collection Curator. The NLM does not own the copyright to the films and videos in the collection, nor do we charge access or permission fees for their use.

    • Credit line

      If using any material from Historical collections for publication or production, please include the phrase: "Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine."

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Last reviewed: 26 August 2008
Last updated: 26 August 2008
First published: 21 April 2004
Metadata| Permanence level: Permanence Not Guaranteed