goto Indian Health Service home page  Indian Health Service:  The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives

goto Health and Human Services home page goto Health and Human Services home page
TreesFishEagleBearMount RainierRain dropsCrab




The Basics


IHS Links

Site Contact


These plug-ins
may be required
for the content
on this page:

Link to Adobe Acrobat Plug-in Acrobat
Link to MicroSoft Word Plug-in MS Word

IHS Plug-in Page

Use site contact
if unable to view
a particular file

Injury Prevention Plan

Getting Started

Having a plan is
the first step towards preventing injuries



Injuries are not accidents--they do not happen by chance. Like disease, they follow a pattern. By identifying the risks for injury, it is possible to predict and prevent it. This page is here to provide you with some basic public health principles and tools to assist you in this process. In the first section there are two step-by-step approaches that are used by many public health practitioners to solve injury problems. The second section provides information on basic public health principles that support these approaches.

Predicting an injury is based on knowing the risk factors for an injury (for example, if you do not wear a seat belt, there is high chance of getting injured in a car crash). If the community injury data shows an injury problem, add to that the risk factors that most likely contributed, and you have set the stage to start intervening or correcting the problem (prevention).

Prevention is a process applied to correct the injury problem. The problem and the risk factors that are involved will direct which intervention or strategy you can apply. There are many proven or effective strategies already in use today (seat belts, car seats, smoke detectors), and new strategies that are being tested each day.
Injury Prevention - Planning Approaches
Public Health Approach. pdf (pdf-50 KB) How can you address the injury problem? Here is a summary of the CDC's 4-step approach.

World Health Organization (WHO)-
Developing Polices to Prevent Injuries and Violence: Guidelines for Policy Makers and Planners.
pdf icon
(pdf-1.1MB) Large File!
Comprehensive policies and well-thought out action plans are essential if injury prevention efforts are to be effective.
staircase image

CDC Injury Fact Book. pdf icon
(pdf-3.3 MB) Large File!
This book presents a comprehensive look at the injury problem in America and efforts underway to reduce it. It offers a wealth of injury data and descriptions of CDC research and prevention programs for a full spectrum of injuries.
Summary of Three Phases of Policy Development. pdf icon (pdf-61KB) A chart showing a summary of the WHO's three phases of policy development to prevent injuries. Click on the large file above for the full text.
Public Health Approach - In More Detail
Define the Problem pdf icon (pdf-960 KB)
Defining or identifying the problem
is Step 1 in the Public Health Approach. Which injuries occur most often and how severe are they? Start your plan here.
Effective Strategies pdf icon (pdf-140KB)
Strategies for Motor-Vehicle Occupant Injury. Increasing Use of Child Safety Seats, Increasing Use of Safety Belts, and Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving. CDC MMWR May 2001.
Risk Factor Defined. pdf icon (pdf-40KB)
This is Step 2 of the Public Health Approach. A risk factor increases one's chances of getting a disease or injury. See an example here.
Effective Strategies pdf icon (pdf-66KB)
Evidence-Based Effective Strategies for Preventing Injuries. Motor Vehicle plus Teen Drivers, Child Abuse Prevention, Bike Helmets, Residential Fire, and Drowning.
Public Health Principles pdf icon (pdf-125KB)
Learn here about applying basic public health principles to identify risk factors and to help develop and choose prevention strategies.

Evaluation pdf icon (pdf-86KB) A well done evaluation should tell us if our program did what we wanted it to do, and it also helps us measure any changes that resulted from our program.
Program Planning pdf icon (pdf-153KB)
The more defined a program is the easier it will be to implement. Time invested in planning will save time and resources and reduce frustration.

Tools for Intervention and Prevention
epi triangle image Epi Triangle Practice Problem and Worksheet pdf icon (pdf-23KB)
This model is used as a tool to identify the risk factors and show the relationship between the three factors that influence the occurrence and prevention of disease and injury. These factors are: Host, Agent, and Environment. Prevention efforts are designed to change one or more of these characteristics, altering the relationship between the three, and ultimately changing the frequency (how often) or severity (strength) of the disease or injury.
Intervention brainstorming tools available here.
Visit here for tools used to identify injury risk factors and intervention strategies. Find information on the ThreeE model and Haddon's Matrix. Interventions that address multiple levels are most effective for injury prevention.
haddon image
Action Planning Worksheet 1 pdf icon
Action Planning Worksheet 2 pdf icon
After planning, the next step is to develop an action plan for each objective. Action plans define and focus what actions or activities need to occur and they define who will be responsible for what actions.

Back To Top

This file last modified: Wednesday December 19, 2007  4:36 PM