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Skip Navigation U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Agency for Healthcare Research Quality


Task Force Recommendations:
Expanding Newborn Screening: Process, Policy, and Priorities (2008)
Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism (2008)
Screening for Newborn Hearing (2008)
Screening for Phenylketonuria (2008)
Screening for Sickle Cell Disease in Newborns (2007)

Vitamin D Supplementation To Prevent Rickets in Breast-Fed Babies: Fact Sheet

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Evidence Reports

Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 70:
Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Low Birth Weight
Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 72:
Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Failure to Thrive
Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 73:
Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Short Stature
Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 147:
The Effectiveness of Different Methods of Toilet Training for Bowel and Bladder Control
Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 153:
Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes in Developed Countries
Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 168:
Outcomes of Maternal Weight Gain

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Research Findings

Agency Press Releases

Date   Title
7/3/08 Task Force Recommends Screening for Hearing Loss in All Newborns

Child Health Research Findings: Newborns and Infants

Research Activities, May 2008:
Antidepressant use during pregnancy is linked to increases in preterm birth and potentially serious infant perinatal problems
Research Activities, April 2008:
Maternal asthma is associated with lower birth weight
Research Activities, March 2008:
Collaboration between hospital and community palliative care services can improve care for dying children
Research Activities, January 2008:
Disadvantaged newly immigrant Hispanic women have much better birth outcomes than disadvantaged U.S. black women
Use of antidepressants by low-income pregnant women has jumped more than twofold, raising questions about fetal risks
Illinois hospitals are not ready to implement intrapartum strategies to eradicate pediatric HIV infection
Research Activities, December 2007:
Women leaving the hospital against medical advice after delivering a baby should be targeted for more services
Interns taught teamwork during neonatal resuscitation training may be better able to resuscitate newborns
Research Activities, November 2007:
Premature infants with chronic lung disease can be safely cared for by community-based providers coordinating with a nurse specialist
Research Activities, September 2007:
Children with complex chronic conditions are more likely to die in their homes than in the hospital
Available and timely access to AZT for HIV-infected mothers giving birth needs to be improved in Illinois birthing hospitals
Research Activities, August 2007:
Rhinoviruses are associated with numerous hospitalizations of children under the age of 5 years, especially those with asthma
Risk of maternal and fetal labor and delivery complications increase as pregnancy progresses beyond 39 weeks of gestation
Connecticut midwife practices vary greatly in compensation and employment structures
Research Activities, May 2007:
Fullness of the neonatal intensive care unit influences early discharge of moderately preterm infants
Research Activities, March 2007:
Certain types of severe abdominal injury may signal child abuse in young children
Research Activities, February 2007:
Many children do not receive recommended well-child visits during the year, especially disadvantaged children
Children's deaths after cardiac surgery seem mostly determined by age and the type of cardiac surgery
Research Activities, January 2007:
Pediatric hospitalists are more likely than community pediatricians to use evidence-based care for hospitalized children
Research Activities, September 2006:
Children's hospitals are much more likely than general hospitals to diagnose child abuse in severely injured infants
Children receiving surgery for hypoplastic left heart syndrome have better outcomes at hospitals that perform more such surgeries
Research Activities, August 2006:
Moderately premature infants born at 30 to 34 weeks gestation tend to suffer substantial health problems
Research Activities, July 2006:
NICU babies are frequently at risk for misidentification
Research Activities, June 2006:
Use of ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy is related to an increased risk of birth defects
Research Activities, April 2006
Very low-birthweight babies treated at minority-serving hospitals have higher death rates
Study hints at link between breastfeeding and intelligence
Research Activities, March 2006
Medi-Cal changes in the 1990s shifted newborn deliveries from large public hospitals to smaller community hospitals
Research Activities, February 2006:
Study examines the relevance and applications of the Institute of Medicine's quality aims on pediatric critical care
Urethral catheterization to diagnose urinary tract infections in feverish infants is questioned
Research Activities, January 2006:
Broad-spectrum antibiotics given during labor are linked to late-onset serious bacterial infections in infants
Research Activities, December 2005:
Preprinted prescription forms can improve compliance with prescription guidelines in neonatal intensive care units
Research Activities, April 2005:
ICU patients are at risk for unintended and preventable adverse events involving airway management
Research Activities, March 2005:
Late bottle-weaning is associated with an increased risk of overweight
Research Activities, January 2005:
Multifaceted QI program greatly improves use of prophylactic surfactant for high-risk preterm infants
First-week followup of newborns after hospital discharge is critical to prevent severe jaundice and other problems
Research Activities, December 2004:
Two approaches hold promise for lowering U.S. infant mortality rates, which are particularly high for minority infants
Research Activities, November 2004:
Service coordination for pregnant women in prison can improve their use of health services after release
Research Activities, September 2004:
Premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are rehospitalized at twice the rate of other premature infants
Expanded Medicaid eligibility reduced the risk of inadequate prenatal care in California during the 1990s
Research Activities, August 2004:
Initial surfactant treatment to prevent respiratory distress in very premature infants is often delayed in routine practice
Pediatricians can help promote literacy by encouraging parents to read daily to their young children
Research Activities, July 2004:
WIC participation improves poor children's access to dental care
Research Activities, June 2004:
Review illuminates women's childbirth preferences following a previous cesarean delivery
Following a rigorous protocol for in-hospital and postdischarge management may lower rates of neonatal jaundice
Research Activities, May 2004:
Jaundice and feeding problems are not associated with short hospital stays, as long as newborns are evaluated at 3 or 4 days of life
Studies examine hospital mortality rates and long-term outcomes of very low birthweight babies
Researchers examine the diagnosis, testing, and treatment of bronchiolitis in infants
Wage inequality is associated with infant mortality rates in wealthy industrialized countries
Research Activities, March 2004:
Relying on clinical guidelines to treat young infants with fevers may not improve outcomes
Research Activities, January 2004:
Premature birth increases infants' risk of hospitalization and complications from respiratory syncytial virus

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