Significant Points
  • Employment is projected to decline, but job opportunities in coal mining and nonmetallic mineral mining should be favorable for construction, extraction, and production workers.
  • While many mining jobs can be entered directly from high school, the increasing sophistication of equipment and machinery requires a higher level of technical skill.
  • Earnings are higher than the average for all industries.

Nature of the Industry [About this section] Back to TopBack to Top

The United States has been endowed with a wealth of natural resources that have fostered its growth and development. In the past, the discovery of resources such as gold and oil has resulted in major population shifts and rapid growth for formerly remote regions of the country, such as California, Texas, and Alaska. Extraction of these resources, and finding new deposits, is the work of the mining industry, which continues to provide the foundation for local economies in some regions.

Goods and services. Products of the mining industry generate the majority of energy used in this country, from electricity in homes to fuel in vehicles. Mined resources also serve as inputs for consumer goods and the processes and services provided by nearly all other industries, particularly in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, utilities, communication, and construction. Uses of mined materials include coal, oil, and gas for energy, copper for wiring, gold for satellites and sophisticated electronic components, stone and gravel for construction of roads and buildings, and a variety of other minerals as ingredients in medicines and household products.

Industry organization. The mining industry contains five main industry segments, which are defined by the resources they produce: oil and gas extraction, coal mining, metal ore mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, and support activities for mining.

The oil and gas extraction segment produces the petroleum and natural gas that heat homes, fuel cars, and power factories. Petroleum products are also the raw materials for plastics, chemicals, medicines, fertilizers, and synthetic fibers. Petroleum, commonly called crude oil or just oil, is a liquid formed under ground from the decay of plants and animals over millions of years through extreme heat and pressure. Occasionally, this decaying material becomes trapped under a layer of impermeable rock that prevents it from dispersing and creates a pocket of oil. Similar processes also produce natural gas, which can be found mixed with oil or in separate deposits. Finding and extracting the oil and gas in these pockets is the primary function of this industry segment.

Using a variety of methods, on land and at sea, small crews of specialized workers search for geologic formations that are likely to contain pockets of oil or gas. Sophisticated equipment and advances in computer technology have increased the productivity of exploration. Maps of potential deposits now are made using remote-sensing satellites. Seismic prospecting—a technique based on measuring the time it takes sound waves to travel through underground formations and return to the surface—has revolutionized oil and gas exploration. Computers and advanced software analyze seismic data to provide three-dimensional models of subsurface rock formations. Another method of searching for oil and gas is based on collecting and analyzing core samples of rock, clay, and sand in the earth’s layers.

After scientific exploration studies indicate the possible presence of oil, a well must be drilled to prove oil is there. An oil company selects a well site and installs a derrick—a tower-like steel structure—to support the drilling equipment. A hole is drilled deep into the earth until oil or gas is found, or the company abandons the effort. Similar techniques are employed in offshore drilling, except that the drilling equipment is part of a steel platform that either sits on the ocean floor, or floats on the surface and is anchored to the ocean floor. Advancements in directional or horizontal drilling techniques, which allow increased access to potential reserves, have had a significant impact on drilling capabilities. Drilling begins vertically, but the drill bit can be turned so that drilling can continue at an angle of up to 90 degrees. This technique extends the drill's reach, enabling it to reach separate pockets of oil or gas. Because constructing new platforms is costly, this technique commonly is employed by offshore drilling operations.

Once the drilling reaches the oil or gas, extraction can begin as natural pressure forces the oil or gas up through the drill hole to the wellhead, where it enters separation and storage tanks. If natural pressure is not great enough to force the oil to the surface, pumps may be used. In some cases, water, steam, or gas may be injected into the oil deposit to improve recovery. The recovered oil is transported to refineries by pipeline, ship, barge, truck, or railroad. Natural gas usually is transported to processing plants by pipeline. While oil refineries may be many thousands of miles away from the producing fields, gas processing plants typically are near the fields, so that impurities—water, sulfur, and natural gas liquids—can be removed before the gas is piped to customers. The oil refining industry is considered a separate industry, and its activities are not covered here, even though many oil companies both extract and refine oil.

The coal mining industry segment produces coal, a fossil fuel that is used primarily for electric power generation and in the production of steel. Like oil, coal is formed over millions of years from plant and animal matter, but unlike oil, coal is a solid, and therefore miners must go into the earth to recover it. Many coal seams are located close to the surface, however, which makes the extraction of this resource easier.

Surface mining of coal typically uses the method known as strip mining, which is usually more cost-effective than underground mining and requires fewer workers to produce the same quantity of coal. In strip mining, workers use huge earthmoving equipment, such as power shovels or draglines, to scoop off the layers of soil and rock covering the coal seam. Once the coal is exposed, it is broken up by using explosives, and then smaller shovels lift it from the ground and load it into trucks. Mining companies are required by Federal, State, and local laws to restore the mined land after surface mining is completed; as a result, the overburden and topsoil are stored after removal so that they can be replaced and native vegetation replanted.

Underground mining is used when the coal deposit lies deep below the surface of the earth. When developing an underground mine, miners first must dig tunnels deep into the earth near the place where the coal is located. Depending on where the coal seam is in relation to the surface, tunnels may be vertical, horizontal, or sloping. Entries are constructed so that miners can get themselves and their equipment to the ore and carry it out, while allowing fresh air to enter the mine. Once dug to the proper depth, a mine’s tunnels interconnect with a network of passageways going in many directions. Using the room-and-pillar method, miners remove sections of the coal as they work the coal seam from the tunnel entrance to the edge of the mine property, leaving columns of coal in place to help support the ceiling together with long steel bolts. This process is then reversed, and the remainder of the ore is extracted, as the miners work their way back out. In the case of longwall mining of coal, self-advancing roof supports, made of hydraulic jacks and metal plates, cover the area being mined. As coal is removed, the entire apparatus advances, allowing the ceiling in the mined area to cave in as the miners work back towards the tunnel entrance. Underground mining does not require as extensive a reclamation process as surface mining; however, mine operators and environmental engineers still must ensure that ground water remains uncontaminated and that abandoned mines do not collapse.

The metal ore mining industry segment covers the extraction of metal ores, primarily gold, silver, iron, copper, lead, and zinc. These naturally occurring minerals have a variety of industrial purposes: gold and silver are primarily used in jewelry and high-end electronics, iron is used to produce steel, copper is the main component of electrical wiring, lead is used in batteries, and zinc is used to coat iron and steel to reduce corrosion and as an alloy in the making of bronze and brass.

Most metals do not exist in concentrated form but rather in small traces in rock called “ore”. Indistinguishable from regular rocks to the untrained eye, some ores are currently mined that contain only a fraction of a percent of metal. As a result, a massive amount of rock must be extracted from the ground in order to obtain a useable amount of metal. As a result of this, and because metal ores are less common than coal, metal mines can be much larger than coal mines and operate in more extreme environments—while coal mines are rarely more than a few hundred feet underground, gold mines can be over a mile below the surface.

Like coal mines, metal ore mines are found in both surface and underground varieties, depending on where the ore deposit is located. In addition to strip mining, surface ore mines also use the open-pit mining technique. These mines are huge holes in the ground that are mined by blasting rock from the sides and bottom with explosives, carrying out the broken up material in trucks, and then repeating the process. Open pit mines can grow to be hundreds of feet deep and several miles wide. Underground mining of ore is less common, typically only occurring when rich veins of ore are discovered or mineral prices are high enough to justify the added expense.

A significant amount of processing is needed to convert ore into usable metal. The mining industry includes initial mineral processing and preparation activities that are located together with mines as part of the extraction process. Further processing is classified under the primary metal manufacturing industry.

The nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying industry segment covers a wide range of mineral extraction. The majority of the industry produces crushed stone, sand, and gravel for use in construction of roads and buildings. Other important minerals produced are clays, primarily for ceramics, water filtration, and cement making; gypsum, the primary material used in wallboard; salt, used in foodstuffs and as an ice remover; phosphate, for use in fertilizers; and sulfur, the main component of sulfuric acid, a major industrial input. Most of these minerals are found in abundance close to the surface, so underground mining is uncommon in this industry segment.

Surface mining for stone is also known as “quarrying”. In quarrying operations, workers use machines to extract the stone. Stone—primarily granite and limestone—is quarried by using explosives to break material off from a massive rock surface. The resulting rocks are crushed further and shipped off for the production of asphalt or concrete. Some high-quality stone, such as marble and certain types of granite, is quarried in large blocks, known as dimension stone, and used as a building material by itself.

The final industry segment is support activities for mining. The activities of this industry are often the same as those of the other industry segments, but the work is done by contract companies that specialize in one aspect of resource extraction. For example, the majority of drilling for new oil wells is done by specialty drilling companies; other support companies specialize in exploration for new resource deposits or operation of offshore oil rigs.

Recent developments. Many resources produced by the mining industry, particularly metals, oil, and gas, are relatively rare and are part of a global market that is highly sensitive to changes in prices. During the 1990s, commodity prices were relatively stable at low levels, causing production to stagnate and limiting the creation of new drilling and mining operations. In recent years, prices have increased dramatically, and exploration and production has likewise risen. Coal is less susceptible to world market conditions, but it also has seen price increases in recent years that have led to expanded production. Demand for nonmetallic minerals is primarily affected by the level of activity in the construction industry, particularly the building of new roads and highways.

Employment in the mining industry has been affected significantly by new technology and more sophisticated mining techniques that increase productivity. Most mining machines and control rooms are now automatic or computer-controlled, requiring fewer, if any, human operators. Many mines also operate with other sophisticated technology such as lasers and robotics, which further increases the efficiency of resource extraction. As a result, mine employment has been falling over time, particularly of workers who are involved in the extraction process itself. These new technologies and techniques have also increased specialization in the industry and led to expanded use of contract mining services companies for specific tasks. These companies also allow mining firms to more easily adjust production levels in response to changes in commodity prices.

Working Conditions [About this section] Back to TopBack to Top

Hours. Work schedules in the mining industry can vary widely. Some sites operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, particularly in oil and gas extraction and underground mines. This creates the opportunity for some mining workers to work long shifts several days in a row, and then have several days off. The remote location of some sites, such as offshore oil rigs, requires some workers to actually live onsite for weeks at a time, often working 12 hour shifts, followed by an extended leave period onshore. As a result of these conditions, part time opportunities are rare in this industry, but overtime is common; less than 3 percent of workers were part-time employees in 2006, while nearly 4 in 9 worked over 40 hours per week, and 1 in 3 over 50 hours per week. The average work week for a production worker in mining was 46.3 hours.

Work environment. Work environments vary by occupation. Scientists and technicians work in office buildings and laboratories, as do executives and administrative and clerical workers. Engineers and managers usually split their time between offices and the mine or well site, where construction and extraction workers spend most of their time. Geologists who specialize in the exploration of natural resources to locate resource deposits may have to travel for extended periods to remote locations, in all types of climates.

Working conditions in mines, quarries, and well sites can be unusual and sometimes dangerous. Physical strength and stamina are necessary, as the work involves standing for long periods, lifting moderately heavy objects, and climbing and stooping to work with tools that often are oily and dirty. Workers in surface mines, quarries, and wells are subject to rugged outdoor work in all kinds of weather and climates, though some surface mines and quarries shut down in the winter because snow and ice covering the mine site makes work too dangerous. Oil and gas sites, because they are largely automated once deposits have been located, generally operate year round regardless of weather conditions, although offshore oil platforms are evacuated before the onset of dangerous weather, such as hurricanes. Surface mining, however, usually is less hazardous than underground mining.

Underground mines are damp and dark, and some can be very hot and noisy. At times, several inches of water may cover tunnel floors. Although underground mines have electric lights along main pathways, many tunnels are illuminated only by the lights on miner’s hats. Workers in mines with very low roofs may have to work on their hands and knees, backs, or stomachs, in confined spaces. In underground mining operations, unique dangers include the possibility of a cave-in, mine fire, explosion, or exposure to harmful gases. In addition, dust generated by drilling in mines still places miners at risk of developing either of two serious lung diseases: pneumoconiosis, also called “black lung disease,” from coal dust, or silicosis from rock dust. These days, dust levels in mines are closely monitored and occurrences of lung diseases are rare if proper procedures are followed. Underground miners have the option to have their lungs x-rayed on a periodic basis to monitor for the development of the disease. Workers who develop black lung disease or silicosis may be eligible for Federal aid.

Mine safety is regulated by the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and successive additional legislation, which has resulted in steadily declining rates of mining injuries and illnesses. Increased automation of mining and oil well operations has also reduced the number of workers needed in some of the more dangerous activities. As a result, in 2006, the rate of work-related injury and illness per 100 full-time workers was only 3.5 for the mining industry as a whole, lower than the rate of 4.4 in the entire private sector. Rates for the specific industry sectors were 2.0 in oil and gas extraction, 4.8 in coal mining, 3.1 in metal ore mining, 3.2 in nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, and 3.9 in support activities for mining.

Employment [About this section] Back to TopBack to Top

There were approximately 619,000 wage and salary jobs in the mining industry in 2006; around 136,000 in oil and gas extraction; 79,000 in coal mining; 33,000 in metal mining; and 110,000 in nonmetallic mineral mining. Not included in these figures are the thousands of Americans who work abroad for U.S. companies conducting mining or drilling operations around the world. In addition to those employed directly by mining companies, there are also 262,000 jobs in the support activities for mining industry segment.

Mining jobs are heavily concentrated in the parts of the country where large resource deposits exist. Almost 3 out of 4 jobs in the oil and gas extraction industry are located in Texas, California, Oklahoma, and Louisiana. Although there were around 1,400 coal mining operations in 26 States in 2005, over two-thirds of all coal mines, and about half of all mine employees, were located in just three States—Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, according to the Energy Information Administration. Other States employing large numbers of coal miners are Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Virginia, and Wyoming. Metal mining is more prevalent in the West and Southwest, particularly in Arizona, Nevada, and Montana, and iron ore mining in Minnesota and Michigan. Nonmetallic mineral mining is the most widespread, as quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, such as stone, clay, sand, and gravel, is done in nearly every State. In many rural areas, mining operations are the main employer. About 80 percent of mining establishments employ fewer than 20 workers (chart 1).

Nearly 80 percent of establishments in mining have fewer than 20 workers.

Occupations in the Industry [About this section] Back to TopBack to Top

The mining industry requires many kinds of workers. In 2006, about half of all workers were employed in construction and extraction or transportation and material-moving occupations (table 1). Many construction and extraction workers are unique to the mining industry as many of them work with equipment that is only used in resource extraction.

Professional and related occupations. Before any mining can actually begin, a deposit of the resource needs to be found. This is the primary work of geologists and geological and petroleum technicians, who travel around the world using tools such as seismic data and core samples to locate deposits of sufficient size and purity for extraction. Petroleum engineers and mining and geological engineers then formulate the general plan for how the mining operation will be undertaken. They design, with drafters and engineering technicians, the general structure of the well or mine, and the most efficient method of extraction. These engineers generally supervise mine and well activities throughout the entire lifecycle of the project, troubleshooting any problems and ensuring smooth operations. They also work with environmental engineers, who ensure that mine or well sites meet stringent Federal, State, and local regulations. Environmental regulations make obtaining permits for new projects increasingly difficult and impose substantial penalties should projects fail to meet standards, making proper environmental remediation a necessity for any mining operation. Environmental engineers also plan reclamation projects when product extraction is complete. Other engineers who ensure smooth working operations include industrial engineers, who manage the use of workers and equipment for optimum productivity, and mechanical engineers, who ensure that complicated systems for cooling and ventilation are designed and constructed properly.

Extraction, transportation, and material moving occupations. The main work of resource extraction is done by the workers who operate the equipment that builds the mine or well and that removes the resource when it is reached. Most occupations are unique to oil and gas extraction, underground mining operations, or surface mining operations.

Most oil field operations are performed by rotary drilling crews of four or five workers. Rotary drill operators supervise the crew and operate machinery that controls drilling speed and pressure. Rotary-rig engine operators are in charge of engines that provide the power for drilling and hoisting. Second in charge, derrick operators work on small platforms high on rigs to help run pipe in and out of well holes and operate the pumps that circulate mud through the pipe. Rotary-driller helpers, also known as roughnecks, guide the lower ends of pipe to well openings and connect pipe joints and drill bits.

Though not necessarily part of the drilling crew, roustabouts, or general laborers, and helpers do general oilfield maintenance and construction work, such as cleaning tanks and building roads, throughout the entire life cycle of the oil well. Once the well is complete and operational, pumpers operate and maintain the equipment that regulates the flow of oil out of the well.

Most workers involved in gas processing are operators. Gas treaters tend automatically controlled treating units that remove water and other impurities from natural gas. Gas-pumping-station operators tend compressors that raise the pressure of gas for transmission in pipelines. Both types of workers can be assisted by gas-compressor operators.

The workers involved in mining coal, metal, or minerals underground vary based on the mining method used. In conventional underground mining, typically used currently only when mining metal ores, drilling-machine operators drill holes in the ore where the blasters place explosives. This potentially dangerous work requires workers to follow safety procedures, such as making sure everyone is clear of the area before the explosives are detonated. After the blast, loading-machine operators scoop up the material using a power shovel and deposit it in a truck for transport to the surface. Self contained load-haul-dump machines are also used to both scoop up and transport the ore.

The continuous mining method, used with coal and other soft minerals, eliminates the drilling and blasting operations of conventional mining through the use of a machine called a continuous miner. Traditionally, a continuous-mining machine operator sits or lies in a machine’s cab and operates levers that cut or rip out ore and load it directly onto a conveyor or shuttle car. However, the use of remote-controlled continuous mining machines—which have increased safety considerably—now allows an operator to control the machine from a distance.

In longwall mining, which is similar to continuous mining, longwall-machine operators run large machines with rotating drums that automatically shear ore and load it on a conveyor. At the same time, hydraulic jacks reinforce the roof of the tunnel. As ore is cut, the jacks are hydraulically winched forward, supporting the roof as they move along.

Many other workers are needed to operate safe and efficient underground mines. Before miners are allowed underground, a mine safety inspector checks the work area for such hazards as loose roofs, dangerous gases, and inadequate ventilation. If safety standards are not met, the inspector prohibits the mine from operating until conditions are made safe. Rock-dust machine operators spray the mine walls and floor to hold down dust, which can be a safety hazard. Roof bolters operate the machines that automatically install roof support bolts to prevent roof cave-ins, the biggest cause of mining injuries. Brattice builders construct doors, walls, and partitions in tunnel passageways to force air into the work areas.

In surface mining, most miners operate huge machines that either remove the earth above the ore deposit, or dig and load the ore onto trucks. The number of workers required to operate a surface mine depends on the amount of overburden, or earth, above the ore seam. In many surface mines, the overburden is first drilled and blasted. Overburden stripping operators or dragline operators then scoop the earth away to expose the coal or metal ore. Some draglines are among the largest land machines on earth.

Next, loading-machine operators rip the exposed ore from the seam and dump it into trucks to be driven to the preparation plant. Tractor operators use bulldozers to move earth and ore and to remove boulders or other obstructions. Truck drivers haul ore to railroad sidings or to preparation plants and transport supplies to mines.

Workers at quarries have duties similar to those of surface miners. Using jackhammers and wedges, rock splitters remove pieces of stone from a rock mass. Dredge operators and dipper tenders operate power-driven dredges to mine sand, gravel, and other materials from beneath the surfaces of lakes, rivers, and streams. Using power-driven cranes with dragline buckets, dragline operators excavate or move sand, gravel, and other materials.

Construction, installation, maintenance, and repair occupations. Other workers, who are not directly involved in the extraction process, work in and around wells, mines, and quarries. For example, mechanics are needed to repair and maintain the wide variety of machinery, and electricians are needed to check and install electrical wiring. Mechanical and electrical repair work has become increasingly complex, as machinery and other equipment have become computerized. Carpenters construct and maintain benches, bins, and stoppings (barricades to prevent airflow through a tunnel). These workers generally need specialized training to work under unusual conditions. Mechanics in underground mines, for example, may have to repair machines while on their knees, with only their headlamps to illuminate the working area.

Table 1. Employment of wage and salary workers in mining by occupation, 2006 and projected change, 2006-2016.
(Employment in thousands)
Occupation Employment, 2006 Percent
Number Percent

All occupations

619 100.0 -1.6

Management, business, and financial occupations

59 9.6 -3.6

Management occupations

35 5.6 -6.9

Business and financial operations occupations

25 4.0 1.0

Professional and related occupations

59 9.5 2.2

Computer specialists

8 1.3 2.8


21 3.4 4.0

Geoscientists, except hydrologists and geographers

8 1.3 4.5

Geological and petroleum technicians

7 1.1 3.0

Office and administrative support occupations

60 9.6 -6.5

Financial clerks

13 2.1 -2.8

Secretaries and administrative assistants

18 2.8 -7.8

Office clerks, general

11 1.8 -2.5

Construction and extraction occupations

234 37.8 -2.0

First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers

22 3.6 -2.0

Construction laborers

7 1.2 -0.6

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

29 4.6 2.8


8 1.4 4.2

Derrick operators, oil and gas

18 2.9 -6.3

Rotary drill operators, oil and gas

19 3.0 -6.5

Service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

26 4.2 -6.5

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

6 0.9 -1.3

Continuous mining machine operators

9 1.5 3.8

Mine cutting and channeling machine operators

7 1.2 3.5

Rock splitters, quarry

3 0.5 28.3

Roof bolters, mining

4 0.7 1.2

Roustabouts, oil and gas

39 6.4 -5.3

Helpers—Extraction workers

19 3.1 -3.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

50 8.0 4.8

Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except engines

10 1.6 8.2

Industrial machinery installation, repair, and maintenance workers

26 4.2 6.5

Production occupations

53 8.6 -0.5

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

6 1.0 5.2

Petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers

11 1.8 -3.0

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

3 0.5 4.7

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

6 1.0 -5.0

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

5 0.8 -7.5

Helpers—Production workers

5 0.8 -0.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

93 15.0 -3.0

Truck drivers, heavy and tractor-trailer

28 4.5 1.5

Material moving occupations

56 9.0 -5.6

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators

14 2.2 3.6

Pumping station operators

17 2.8 -12.7

Wellhead pumpers

13 2.1 -13.2

Note: May not add to totals due to omission of occupations with small employment

Training and Advancement [About this section] Back to TopBack to Top

There are few formal education requirements for new extraction workers, although a considerable amount of job training and experience is needed before workers can perform most duties or advance to more skilled positions. Skilled maintenance and construction workers usually need several years of vocational training in their field, while workers in professional occupations need at least a bachelor’s degree.

Extraction workers. Workers in extraction occupations usually must be at least 18 years old, be in good physical condition, and pass a drug test. A high school diploma is not necessarily required, but is usually preferred; some companies also require workers to pass a basic skills test. Most workers start as helpers to experienced workers and learn skills on the job; however, formal training is becoming more important, as more technologically advanced machinery and methods are used. Given the increasing complexity of operations and the sophisticated nature of technology used today, employers now demand a higher level of skill and adaptability, including the ability to work with computers and other more complex equipment. As a result, some employers prefer to hire recent graduates of high school vocational programs in mining or graduates of junior college or technical school programs in mine technology. Such programs usually are found only at schools in mining areas.

Because of the unique dangers in mining operations, workers also need extensive safety training. The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 mandates that each U.S. mine have an approved worker training program in health and safety issues. Each plan must include at least 40 hours of basic safety training for new miners with no experience in underground mines, and 24 hours for new miners in surface mines. In addition to new miner training, each miner must receive at least 8 hours of refresher safety training a year, and miners assigned to new jobs must receive safety training relating to their new task. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) also conducts classes on health, safety, and mining methods, and some mining machinery manufacturers offer courses in machine operation and maintenance as well. The MSHA has recently put interactive training materials on its Website, and also has translated many of the training materials into Spanish. Increasingly, mines use more high-tech tools for miner training, such as machinery simulators and virtual reality simulators. By simulating actual mine conditions and emergencies, mine workers are better prepared and companies can instantly assess a mineworker’s progress and skills.

As workers gain more experience, they can advance to higher paying jobs requiring greater skill. A mining machine operator’s helper, for example, might become an operator, or a roughneck may become a derrick operator. Due to the extreme environment and critical nature of the work, offshore oil crews generally are more experienced than land crews. Many companies will not employ someone who has no knowledge of oilfield operations to work on an offshore rig, so workers who have gained experience as part of a land crew might advance to offshore operations. Positions are usually filled on the basis of seniority and ability. Miners with significant experience or special training also can become mine safety, health, and compliance officers, whose duties include mine safety inspection. According to MSHA, a mine safety, health, and compliance officer needs at least 5 years' experience as a miner, or a degree in mining engineering.

Construction, maintenance, and repair occupations. Most skilled occupations in construction or maintenance require several years of vocational training or experience in the occupation. Many schools in areas with mining operations often offer specialized mine technology programs. Enrollment in these programs can lead to a certificate in mine technology after 1 year, an associate degree after 2 years, or a bachelor’s degree after 4 years. Courses cover areas such as mine ventilation, roof bolting, and machinery repairs. Specialized training on equipment use and repair may also be provided by equipment manufacturers.

Professional and related occupations. For professional positions, a bachelor’s degree is required, usually in engineering or one of the physical sciences. A number of colleges and universities have mining schools or departments and programs in mining or oil and gas extraction, particularly those in States with large numbers of mining or oil and gas field operations. Environmental positions require regulatory knowledge and a strong natural science background, or a background in a technical field, such as environmental engineering or hydrology. To date, most environmental professionals have been drawn from the ranks of engineers and scientists who have had experience in the mining industry. Universities and mining schools have introduced more environmental coursework into their programs, and mining firms are hiring professionals from existing environment-related disciplines and training them to meet their companies’ needs.

Outlook [About this section] Back to TopBack to Top

Employment in mining will decrease. The growing U.S. and world economies will continue to demand larger quantities of the raw materials produced by mining, but the increased output will be able to be met by new technologies and new extraction techniques that increase productivity and require fewer workers.

Employment change. Wage and salary employment in mining is expected to decline by 2 percent through the year 2016, compared with 11 percent growth projected for the entire economy. Mining production is tied closely with prices and demand for the raw materials produced, and as prices for oil, gas, and metals have risen rapidly in recent years, production and employment in the industry have also grown. Further short-term increases in employment may be likely if prices remain high, but over the course of the projections period, technological advances will increase productivity and cause employment declines in the mining industry as a whole.

Petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in the United States depends upon prices for these resources and the size of accessible reserves. Stable and favorable prices are needed to allow companies enough revenue to expand exploration and production projects. Rising worldwide demand for oil and gas—particularly from developing countries such as India and China—is likely to cause prices to remain high and generate the needed incentive for oil and gas producers to continue exploring and developing oil and gas reserves, at least in the short run. U.S. reserves of oil and gas should remain adequate to support increased production over the projection period. Many U.S. oil services companies operate in overseas oil and gas fields as well, and are therefore not limited by domestic reserves.

Environmental concerns, accompanied by strict regulation and limited access to protected Federal lands, also continue to have a major impact on this industry. Restrictions on drilling in environmentally sensitive areas and other environmental constraints should continue to limit exploration and development, both onshore and offshore. These factors will cause employment in oil and gas extraction to decline by 2 percent through 2016. However, changes in policy could expand exploration and drilling for oil and natural gas in currently protected areas and add jobs, especially in Alaska and the Federally-controlled Outer Continental Shelf.

Demand for coal will increase as coal remains the primary fuel source for electricity generation. Although environmental concerns exist regarding coal power—burning coal releases pollutants and carbon dioxide—few alternatives exist on a scale large enough to meet the fuel demand of utilities. Natural gas burns cleaner than coal, but coal power plants equipped with scrubbers reduce this disadvantage, and both fuels emit greenhouse gases. Recent increases in the price of natural gas have also caused some electricity producers to delay their conversion to natural gas, which is helping to maintain demand for coal. Future increased use of nuclear power or renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, could reduce demand for coal, but over the projection period neither is expected to increase rapidly enough to contribute significantly to U.S. energy supplies.

Advances in mining technology will adversely affect employment in coal mining as new machinery and processes increase worker productivity. Fewer workers are required for operation and maintenance of new mining machines that are operated remotely by computer and that self-diagnose mechanical problems. Productivity in coal mining has increased with advances in longwall and surface mining and improvements in transportation and processing that require fewer workers.

Environmental concerns will continue to affect mining operations. Increasingly, government regulations are restricting access to land and restricting the type of mining that is performed in order to protect native plants and animals and decrease the amount of water and air pollution. As population growth expands further into the countryside, new developments and mine operators are competing for land, and residents are increasing their opposition to nearby mining activities. These concerns, together with depletion of the most accessible coal deposits in the East, will result in a shift in coal production. Coal mining will increase in the Central, and particularly the Western, United States and decrease in the East. Overall, coal mining employment will experience little employment change as rising demand for coal is met with productivity gains from more efficient and automated production operations

Employment in mining for metal ores is expected to grow by about 9 percent through 2016 as continued high prices for metals will lead to increased production. Because metals are used primarily as raw materials by other industries, such as telecommunications, construction, steel, aerospace, and automobile manufacturing, the strength of the metal ore mining industry is greatly affected by the strength of these industries. Most metals are sold and bought in a world market, so demand stems not only from domestic industries but also from fast growing industries in developing countries. Demand from these countries has caused prices for many metals to increase substantially in recent years. This has caused U.S. mining companies to expand production at existing mines and restart production at some mines that were closed in the past when low metal prices made them unprofitable. However, employment growth in metal ore mining will be moderated by many of the same technological advances and environmental concerns as coal mining.

Employment in nonmetallic mineral mining should increase by 6 percent because of continued demand for crushed stone, sand, and gravel used in construction activities. Like the metal ore mining industry, the nonmetallic mineral mining industry is influenced by the strength of the industries that use its outputs in the manufacture of their products. Nonmetallic minerals are used to make concrete and asphalt for road construction and also as materials in residential and nonresidential building construction. The nonmetallic mineral mining industry did not experience the past employment declines of the other mining industries, largely because of demand increases from the fast growing construction industry. The demand for crushed stone and gravel should remain strong over the next few years because of demand for residential housing, roads, and airports, but productivity increases should limit employment growth. Transportation costs for stone, sand, and gravel are high so mining of them is spread across the country and therefore not as susceptible to industry consolidation. This geographical spread, together with the small size of many mines, causes some mines to operate only during warm months. Many workers laid off during the winter find jobs in other industries and must be replaced when the mines reopen. Jobs in nonmetallic mineral mining attract many migrant workers and those looking for summer employment.

Job prospects. Despite an overall decline in mining industry employment, job opportunities in most occupations should be very good. Because workers in the mining industry are older than average, some companies may have trouble coping with the loss of many experienced workers to retirement at a time when the industry is expanding production. At the same time, past declines in employment in the industry have dissuaded potential workers from considering employment in the industry, and many colleges and universities have shut down programs designed to train professionals for work in mining. Employment opportunities will be best for those with previous experience and with technical skills, especially qualified professionals and extraction workers who have experience in oil field operations and who can work with new technology.

Earnings [About this section] Back to TopBack to Top

Industry earnings. Average earnings of wage and salary workers in mining were significantly higher than the average for all industries. In 2006, production workers, earned $21.40 an hour in oil and gas extraction, $22.08 an hour in coal mining, $22.39 an hour in metal ore mining, and $18.74 an hour in nonmetallic minerals mining, compared to the private industry average of $16.76 an hour (table 2). Earnings in selected occupations in specified mining industries appear in table 3.

Table 2. Average earnings of nonsupervisory workers in mining, 2006
Industry segment Weekly Hourly



Total, private industry

$568 $16.76




939 20.29

Coal mining

1093 22.08

Metal ore mining

974 22.39

Oil and gas extraction

921 21.40

Support activities for mining

921 19.65

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

863 18.74

Table 3. Median hourly earnings of the largest occupations in mining, May 2006
Occupation Mining, except oil and gas Oil and gas extraction Support activities for mining All industries

General and operations managers

$39.91 $51.17 $38.81 $40.97

First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers

30.08 29.39 27.03 25.89

Rotary drill operators, oil and gas

- 19.50 18.43 18.49

Service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

- 17.65 15.57 15.82

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

17.48 19.32 15.17 17.74

Helpers--extraction workers

17.20 12.13 13.87 13.79

Truck drivers, heavy and tractor-trailer

16.03 13.93 14.67 16.85

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators

16.02 - 14.05 15.83

Derrick operators, oil and gas

- 15.73 17.53 17.42

Roustabouts, oil and gas

- 12.65 12.47 12.36

Benefits and union membership. About 8 percent of mineworkers were union members or were covered by union contracts in 2006, compared with about 12 percent of workers throughout private industry. Most union members were employed in the coal, metal ore, and nonmetallic mineral mining industries, where 19 percent of workers were union members in 2006. Only 1 percent of workers were unionized in the other mining industries. Union coal miners are primarily represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA). The United Steelworkers of America, the International Union of Operating Engineers, and other unions also represent miners.

Sources of Additional Information [About this section] Back to TopBack to Top

Links to non-BLS Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

For additional information about careers and training in the mining industry, contact:

  • American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302. Internet:
  • American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L St. NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070. Internet:
  • Mine Safety and Health Administration, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209-3939. Internet:
  • National Mining Association, 101 Constitution Ave. NW., Suite 500 East., Washington, DC 20001. Internet:
  • United Mine Workers of America, 8315 Lee Highway, Fairfax, VA 22031. Internet:

Detailed information on the following occupations in the mining industry may be found in the 2008-09 Occupational Outlook Handbook:

NAICS Codes [About the NAICS codes] Back to TopBack to Top


Suggested citation: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Career Guide to Industries, 2008-09 Edition, Mining , on the Internet at (visited September 17, 2008 ).


Last Modified Date: December 18, 2007