Skip Over Navigation Links
National Institutes of Health


1. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, Rush AJ, Walters EE, Wang PS. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003; 289(3): 3095-3105.

2. Rohan KJ, Lindsey KT, Roecklein KA, Lacy TJ. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy and their combination in treating seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2004; 80: 273-283.

3. Tsuang MT, Bar JL, Stone WS, Faraone SV. Gene-environment interactions in mental disorders. World Psychiatry. 2004 Jun; 3(2): 73-83.

4. Schmidt PJ, Nieman LK, Danaceau MA, Adams LF, Rubinow DR. Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steroids in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 1998 Jan 22; 338(4): 209-216.

5. Rubinow DR, Schmidt PJ, Roca CA. Estrogen-serotonin interactions: Implications for affective regulation. Biological Psychiatry. 1998; 44(9): 839-850.

6. Ross LE, Steiner M. A Biopsychosocial approach to premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2003; 26(3): 529-546.

7. Dreher JC, Schmidt PJ, Kohn P, Furman D, Rubinow D, Berman KF. Menstrual cycle phase modulates reward-related neural function in women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007 Feb 13; 104(7): 2465-2470.

8. Munk-Olsen T, Laursen TM, Pederson CB, Mores O, Mortensen PB. New parents and mental disorders. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2006 Dec 6; 296(21): 2582-2589.

9. Chaudron LH, Szilagyi PG, Kitzman HJ, Wadkins HI, Conwell Y. Detection of postpartum depressive symptoms by screening at well-child visits. Pediatrics. 2004 Mar; 113(3 Pt 1): 551-558.

10. Freeman MP, Wright R, Watchman M, Wahl RA, Sisk DJ, Fraleigh L, Weibrecht JM. Postpartum depression assessments at well-baby visits: screening feasibility, prevalence and risk factors. Journal of Women's Health. 2005 Nov 10; 14(10): 929-935.

11. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Nelson DB. Associations of hormones and menopausal status with depressed mood in women with no history of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2006 Apr; 63(4): 375-382.

12. Cohen L, Altshuler L, Harlow B, Nonacs R, Newport DJ, Viguera A, Suri R, Burt V, Hendrick AM, Loughead A, Vitonis AF, Stowe Z. Relapse of major depression during pregnancy in women who maintain or discontinue antidepressant treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2006 Feb 1; 295(5): 499-507.

13. Bebbington PE, Dunn G, Jenkins R, Lewis G, Brugha T, Farrell M, Meltzer H. The influence of age and sex on the prevalence of depressive conditions: report from the National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. International Review of Psychiatry. 2003 Feb-May; 15(1-2): 74-83.

14. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Larson J, Grayson C. Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1999; 77(5): 1061-1072.

15. Regier DA, Rae DS, Narrow WE, Kaebler CT, Schatzberg AF. Prevalence of anxiety disorders and their comorbidity with mood and addictive disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1998; 173(Suppl. 34): 24-28.

16. Devane CL, Chiao E, Franklin M, Kruep EJ. Anxiety disorders in the 21st century: status, challenges, opportunities, and comorbidity with depression. American Journal of Managed Care. 2005 Oct; 11(Suppl. 12): S344-353.

17. Kessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, Epstein JF, Gfroerer JC, Hiripi E, Howes MJ, Normand SL, Manderscheid RW, Walters EE, Zaslavsky AM. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2003 Feb; 60(2): 184-189.

18. Conway KP, Compton W, Stinson FS, Grant BF. Lifetime comorbidity of DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders and specific drug use disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2006 Feb; 67(2): 247-257.

19. Cassano P, Fava M. Depression and public health, an overview. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2002 Oct; 53(4): 849-857.

20. Katon W, Ciechanowski P. Impact of major depression on chronic medical illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2002 Oct; 53(4): 859-863.

21. Hankin BL, Abramson LY. Development of gender differences in depression: an elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory. Psychological Bulletin. 2001 Nov; 127(6): 773-796.

22. Calvete E, Cardenoso O. Gender differences in cognitive vulnerability to depression and behavior problems in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2005 Apr; 33(2): 179-192.

23. Cyranowski J, Frank E, Young E, Shear K. Adolescent onset of the gender difference in lifetime rates of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2000 Jan; 57(1): 21-27.

24. Krishnan KRR, Taylor WD, McQuoid DR, MacFall JR, Payne ME, Provenzale JM, Steffens DC. Clinical characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging-defined subcortical ischemic depression. Biological Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 15; 55(4): 390-397.

25. Rush JA, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Stewart JW, Nierenberg AA, Thase ME, Ritz L, Biggs MM, Warden D, Luther JF, Shores-Wilson K, Niederehe G, Fava M. Bupropion-SR, Sertraline, or Venlafaxine-XR after failure of SSRIs for depression. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006 Mar 23; 354(12): 1231-1242.

26. Trivedi MH, Fava M, Wisniewski SR, Thase ME, Quitkin F, Warden D, Ritz L, Nierenberg AA, Lebowitz BD, Biggs MM, Luther JF, Shores-Wilson K, Rush JA. Medication augmentation after the failure of SSRIs for depression.New England Journal of Medicine. 2006 Mar 23; 354(12): 1243-1252.

27. Marcus SM, Flynn HA, Blow F, Barry K. A screening study of antidepressant treatments and mood symptoms in pregnancy. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2005 May; 8(1): 25-27.

28. Austin M. To treat or not to treat: maternal depression, SSRI use in pregnancy and adverse neonatal effects. Psychological Medicine. 2006 Jul 25; 1-8.

29. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA Medwatch drug alert on Effexor and SSRIs, 2004 Jun 3. Available at (

30. Weissman AM, Levy BT, Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Donohue M, Ellingrod VL, Wisner KL. Pooled analysis of antidepressant levels in lactating mothers, breast milk and nursing infants. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2004 Jun; 161(6): 1066-1078.

31. Bridge JA, Iyengar S, Salary CB, Barbe RP, Birmaher B, Pincus HA, Ren L, Brent DA. Clinical response and risk for reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in pediatric antidepressant treatment, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2007; 297(15): 1683-1696.

32. Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002 Apr 10; 287(14): 1807-1814.

33. March J, Silva S, Petrycki S, Curry J, Wells K, Fairbank J, Burns B, Domino M, McNulty S, Vitiello B, Severe J, Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) team. Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2004 Aug 18; 292(7): 807-820.

34. Reynolds CF III, Dew MA, Pollock BG, Mulsant BH, Frank E, Miller MD, Houck PR, Mazumdar S, Butters MA, Stack JA, Schlernitzauer MA, Whyte EM, Gildengers A, Karp J, Lenze E, Szanto K, Bensasi S, Kupfer DJ. Maintenance treatment of major depression in old age. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006 Mar 16; 354(11): 1130-1138.

35. Rami L, Bernardo M, Boget T, Ferrer J, Portella M, Gil-Verona JA, Salamero M. Cognitive status of psychiatric patients under maintenance electroconvulsive therapy: a one-year longitudinal study. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2004 Fall; 16(4): 465-471.