Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
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What is the Mass Layoff Statistics (MLS) program?
The Mass Layoff Statistics program is a Federal-State cooperative statistical effort which uses a standardized, automated approach to identify, describe, and track the effects of major job cutbacks, using data from each State´s unemployment insurance database. Establishments which have at least 50 initial claims for unemployment insurance (UI) filed against them during a consecutive 5-week period are contacted by State agencies to determine whether those separations are of at least 31 days duration, and, if so, information is obtained on the total number of persons separated, the reasons for these separations, and recall expectations. Establishments are identified according to industry classification and location, and unemployment insurance claimants are identified by such demographic characteristics as age, race, sex, ethnic group, and place of residence. The program yields information on an individual´s entire spell of unemployment, to the point when regular unemployment insurance benefits are exhausted. It provides databases of establishments and claimants, both of which are used for further research and analysis.
What kind of information does the MLS program provide?
Mass layoff summary information on establishments which have at least 50 initial claims for unemployment insurance (UI) filed against them during a 5-week period are reported in the monthly news release, Mass Layoffs in (Month). The number of layoff events and the number of initial claimants associated with those events are available for 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, as well as by industry.
Extended mass layoff data report on establishments which have at least 50 initial claims filed against them during a 5-week period and where the employer indicates that 50 or more people were separated from their jobs for at least 31 days. These data are reported in the quarterly news release, Extended Mass Layoffs in (Quarter). Information is obtained on the total number of persons separated; the reasons for separation; worksite closures; recall expectations; and socioeconomic characteristics on UI claimants´ such as gender, age, race, and residency. These characteristics are collected at two points in time—when an initial claim is filed and when the claimant exhausts regular UI benefits. In between these points, the unemployment status of claimants is tracked through the monitoring of certifications for unemployment (continued claims) filed under the regular State UI program. Data are available for 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, as well as by industry.
What constitutes a mass layoff?
A mass layoff occurs when at least 50 initial claims are filed against an establishment during a consecutive 5-week period. An extended mass layoff occurs when at least 50 initial claims are filed against an establishment during a consecutive 5-week period and at least 50 workers have been separated from jobs for more than 30 days.
What is an initial claim?
This is a term used to define the initial notice of unemployment a person files with the State Unemployment Insurance agency to initiate a request either for a determination of entitlement to and eligibility for compensation, or for a subsequent period of unemployment within a benefit year or period of eligibility.
Are companies having mass layoffs identified by name when mass layoffs occur?
No. The Bureau of Labor Statistics keeps the identity of such establishments confidential.
What industry classification system does the MLS program use?
Beginning with the release of 2008 data, the Mass Layoff Statistics program implemented the 2007 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and tabulation of economic data by industry from that of the 2002 NAICS basis. A complete list of NAICS 2007 industries with further information on the changes associated with moving from the 2002 NAICS is available on the Census Bureau´s NAICS page, which can be accessed at www.census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html.
Data using NAICS is available from April 1995 to the present for both mass layoff and extended mass layoff data. Prior to implementing NAICS in 2002, the MLS program used the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) structure. SIC-based data are available from April 1995 through the end of 2001.
Further information about the MLS program´s implementation of NAICS 2007 can be accessed at www.bls.gov/mls/mls2007naics.htm.
How are MLS program data used?
MLS data are used for the following purposes:
Are MLS data benchmarked?
No. Benchmarking is not necessary since the MLS program is a universe, not a sample-based survey.
How are data revisions indicated?
Beginning with data for 2000, the latest two months of Mass Layoff data are preliminary and are indicated as such with a "(P)." Data for months prior to the preliminary months are considered final and are not expected to change. However, in the event that changes to final monthly data occur, an "(R)" will indicate which data are revised. This designation remains until the next month of data is made available. For example, if February 2000 was the latest data available, both January and February 2000 data would be indicated as "(P)." All months prior to January would be considered to be final. When March 2000 became available, February and March data would be considered preliminary and January 2000 data final. Any revisions to data prior to January would be indicated with an "(R)." Extended Mass Layoff data (published quarterly) follows the same approach. The latest two quarters of data are preliminary and are indicated as such with a "(P)." Data for quarters prior to the preliminary quarters are considered final and are not expected to change. However, in the event that changes to final quarterly data occur, an "(R)" will indicate which data are revised. This designation remains until the next quarter of data is made available. For example, if fourth quarter 1999 was the latest data available, both third and fourth quarters 1999 data would be indicated as "(P)." All quarters prior to the third quarter would be considered to be final. When first quarter 2000 became available, fourth quarter 1999 and first quarter 2000 would be considered preliminary and third quarter 1999 data final. Any revisions to data prior to third quarter 1999 would be indicated with an "(R)."
Why are "domestic relocation" and "overseas relocation" as reasons for layoff no longer collected?
The MLS program discontinued the collection of "domestic relocation" and "overseas relocation" as standard reasons for layoff beginning with data for the first quarter 2004. It was felt these reasons do not reflect an economic reason, and instead relate to the effect of the actual reason.
Whom should I contact if I have questions regarding the MLS program?
Please contact us via email or call 202-691-6392.
Last Modified Date: May 15, 2008