Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)
For more information, please see the Technical Notes.
What does the OES program produce?
The OES program produces employment and wage estimates for about 800 occupations. These are estimates of the number of people employed in certain occupations, and estimates of the wages paid to them. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual States, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan statistical areas (MSAs); national occupational estimates for specific industries are also available.
What is the OES data used for?
The OES program is the only comprehensive source of regularly produced occupational employment and wage rate information for the U.S. economy, as well as States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, all metropolitan areas and non metropolitan areas in each State.
Occupational employment data are used to develop information regarding current and projected employment needs and job opportunities. This information is used in the development of State education and workforce development plans. These data enable the analysis of the occupational composition of different industries, and the comparison of occupational composition across States and local areas, including analysis for economic development purposes. OES employment estimates also are used as job placement aids by helping to identify industries that employ the skills gained by enrollees in career-technical training programs. In addition, OES survey data serve as primary inputs into occupational information systems designed for those who are exploring career opportunities or assisting others in career decision making.
OES data are used by several other BLS and government programs, such as the BLS Employment Projections program, the Employment Training Administration (ETA), and the Employment Standards Administration (ESA). OES data are used to establish the fixed employment weights for the Employment Cost Index and in the calculation of occupational rates for the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses. Wage data also are provided to ETA's Foreign Labor Certification program for use in administering the H1-B visa program.
Employment and wage data for detailed science, engineering, mathematical, and other occupations are provided to the National Science Foundation, along with the complete staffing patterns for all industries.
Occupational wage data are used by job seekers and employers to determine salary ranges for different occupations in different locations and in different industries. OES employment and wage data also can be found in ETA's America's Labor Market Information System and America's Career Information Network.
Many of the users of OES data use data provided by the State Labor Market Information programs. It is used by workforce investment boards and economic development programs to attract businesses. The data provides information on labor availability by occupation as well as average wages. It is frequently cited as the most popular labor market information program within States.
Finally, employment and wage data are used by academic and government researchers to study labor markets and wage and employment trends. These data inform the so-called “good-jobs/bad-jobs” debate on how business cycles and structural economic change impact wages and employment across the range of occupations; and how many and what types of jobs are impacted by off-shore outsourcing. Currently, OES staffing patterns and wage data are being used by MedPAC in research to improve Medicare reimbursement rates.
What basic concepts are essential to understanding the OES survey?
“Establishment,” “Industry,” and “Occupation” are three key concepts.
- An establishment is the physical location of a certain economic activity, for example, a factory, mine, store, or office. Generally a single establishment produces a single good or provides a single service. An enterprise (a private firm, government, or non-profit organization) could consist of a single establishment or multiple establishments. A multi-establishment enterprise could have all its establishments in one industry (i.e., a chain), or could have various establishments in different industries (i.e., a conglomerate).
- An industry is a group of establishments that produce similar products or provide similar services. For example, all establishments that manufacture automobiles are in the same industry. A given industry, or even a particular establishment in that industry, might have employees in dozens of occupations. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) groups similar establishments into industries. What is the NAICS?
- An occupation is a set of activities or tasks that employees are paid to perform. Employees that perform essentially the same tasks are in the same occupation, whether or not they are in the same industry. Some occupations are concentrated in a few particular industries, other occupations are found in the majority of industries.
What are the differences between the Bureau's Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) wage estimates and National Compensation Survey (NCS) wage estimates?
Both the OES and the NCS programs provide information on wages and salaries by occupation but they have different strengths. Only OES has information on employment for detailed occupations.
- The OES survey provides earnings on an hourly and annual basis, including mean and median earnings for all areas—national, State, and MSAs—as well as 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentile wage rate estimates for the nation. The NCS survey also provides mean earnings on an hourly and annual basis for all surveys and earnings distributions by the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles for some surveys. The OES program is the larger survey and can provide a greater range of occupations and areas, while the NCS program is conducted by personal visit and can provide greater depth by obtaining occupational work level.
The NCS occupational work level is based on the duties and responsibilities of the job. An architect, for example, who directs a major project would typically be more highly compensated than an architect preparing a small part of a project under direct supervision.
- The OES program provides information for more occupations (about 800 occupational classifications compared with about 450 occupational classifications in the NCS). The NCS program, on the other hand, provides information on the wages for the occupations it covers at specific levels of work, rather than just an average for all workers in the occupation.
- The OES program provides information for the nation, for States, and for 484 metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, including 375 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and 34 metropolitan divisions which make up 11 of the MSAs (although not all areas have information for all occupations). A listing of the new areas and their definitions can be found at http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/msa_def.htm.
- The NCS program provides information for the nation, for the 9 census divisions, and for approximately 85 metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.
- If you need to know the general wage profile for a large number of occupations in a large number of areas, the OES estimates are the better choice. If you need information by State, metropolitan and nonmetropolitan area, or industry, you will need to use OES estimates. If you want estimates according to the level of work that is being performed, the NCS estimates are the better choice.
- Both surveys include full- and part-time workers who are paid a wage or salary. The NCS program obtains actual work schedules from the establishment, while the OES program assumes standardized schedules. Thus, if you need information on occupations in which the work schedule is atypical, you need to exercise caution in using the OES estimates.
- Both surveys exclude agriculture, fishing and forestry industries and private household workers; the OES program includes the U.S. Postal Service and federal executive branch employment except for some national security agencies, while the NCS program excludes federal government employment.
- The OES estimates are available at http://www.bls.gov/oes/oes_data.htm and the NCS estimates are available at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/compub.htm.
Does the BLS have OES estimates for specific industries?
Yes. The table below shows where to find OES estimates, including a sample of national industry-specific occupational employment and wage estimates. The BLS produces national occupational employment and wage estimates for sector, 3, 4, and selected 5-digit NAICS industries. What is the NAICS? These estimates are available by request.
Industry-specific OES estimates for individual States may be available from the States' Labor Market Information (LMI) or Research, Analysis, and Statistics offices that are part of their State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). Availability, format and medium of the data vary by State.
To obtain OES data for a particular State, please contact the appropriate office on the State Contact List.
Does the BLS have OES estimates for individual States?
Yes. The table below shows where to find OES estimates, including state-wide cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for individual States. Additional information may be available from the State Workforce Agency (SWA) in each State. Format and medium of the data vary by State. To obtain additional estimates for a particular State, please contact the appropriate office on the State Contact List.
Does the BLS have OES estimates for metropolitan areas?
Yes. The table below shows where to find OES estimates, including cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.
The OES program provides information for the nation, for States, and for 484 metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, including 375 metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) and 34 metropolitan divisions which make up 11 of the MSAs (although not all areas have information for all occupations). A listing of the new areas and their definitions can be found at http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/msa_def.htm.
Where to find OES estimates?
What is the difference between “Occupational Employment and Wage estimates” and “Industry Staffing Pattern estimates”?
The Occupational Employment Statistics program produces “Occupational Employment and Wage estimates” and “Industry Staffing Pattern estimates”— both of which consist of employment and wage estimates by occupation. The “Occupational Employment and Wage estimates” consist of national, State, metropolitan and nonmetropolitan area estimates. The “Industry Staffing Pattern estimates” contain only national estimates.
The main difference is that the “Occupational Employment and Wage estimates” are cross-industry estimates, and the “Industry Staffing Pattern estimates” are industry-specific estimates.
- Cross-industry estimates are calculated with data collected from establishments in all the industries in which a particular occupation is reported. (Not every occupation is surveyed in every industry.) For example, the cross-industry occupational employment estimate for mechanical engineers is the sum of all the industry-specific estimates for mechanical engineers. Likewise, cross-industry occupational wage estimates for mechanical engineers are calculated from data collected from establishments in all the industries where mechanical engineers are reported.
- Industry-specific estimates are calculated with data collected from establishments in a particular industry. Industry-specific occupational employment estimates estimate the number of people employed in that occupation in a particular industry. Similarly, the industry-specific occupational wage estimates are calculated with data from establishments in one particular industry. Since different industries employ people in different occupations, the occupations in the staffing pattern for one industry will not be the same as the occupations in the staffing pattern for another industry.
Prior to 1996, national industry-specific estimates of occupational employment were the only OES estimates produced by the BLS; wage estimates were not produced.
Why does the OES program produce estimates from more than one year's data?
Significant reductions in sampling error can be achieved by taking advantage of a full three years of data, covering 1.2 million establishments and over 70 percent of the employment in the United States. This feature is particularly important in improving the reliability of estimates for detailed occupations in small geographical areas. Combining multiple years of data is also necessary to obtain full coverage of establishments with 250 or more workers. In order to reduce respondent burden, the OES survey samples them only once every three years. While there are significant advantages, there are also limitations associated with this estimation procedure in that it requires “updating” for the earlier years of data.
The May 2006 employment and wage estimates were calculated using data collected in the May 2006, November 2005, May 2005, November 2004, May 2004, and November 2003 semi-annual panels. The November 2005, May 2005, November 2004, May 2004, and November 2003 wage data have been adjusted to the May 2006 reference period using the over-the-year wage change in the most applicable Employment Cost Index series.
Does the OES survey produce estimates by age, race, sex, or educational attainment?
No. The OES survey program does not gather demographic information. However, the BLS Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey program provides information on employment, unemployment, and weekly earnings, by a variety of demographic characteristics.
Does the OES survey produce estimates by size of establishment?
No. The OES survey does not produce estimates based on total establishment employment. Information pertaining to the number of establishments in various employment size classes and their aggregate employment (economy wide and by industry) can be obtained by contacting the staff at the “ES-202” or Covered Employment & Wages program.
Does the OES program have any data on unemployment for specific occupations?
No. The OES survey produces estimates of the numbers of employees and their wages collected from the establishments where they work. However, there is some information on selected unemployment indicators (including broad occupational groups) in “The Employment Situation” news release, which is part of Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey . More detailed information on characteristics of the unemployed can be obtained by contacting the Labor Force Statistics staff.
Does the OES program have any information on job vacancies?
No. The OES survey does not ask establishments for vacancy information. Another BLS program, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS), asks establishments for the number of job openings on the last business day of each month. However, the data is not available by occupation. Job seekers can find links to state job banks and to private-sector job banks at http://www.careeronestop.org/ajbprsjbl/.
Does the BLS have employment projections for specific occupations?
For more than 50 years, the Bureau's Occupational Outlook Handbook has been a nationally recognized source of career information. It describes what workers do on the job, working conditions, the training and education needed, earnings, and expected job prospects for a variety of occupations.
How are “employees” defined by the OES survey?
“Employees” are all part-time and full-time workers who are paid a wage or salary. The survey does not cover the self-employed, owners and partners in unincorporated firms, household workers, or unpaid family workers.
Does the BLS have occupational employment estimates that include the self-employed?
The Bureau of Labor Statistics' Office of Employment Projections provides current and projected national economy-wide (across all industries, including the self-employed) occupational employment estimates for selected occupations.
How are “wages” defined by the OES survey?
Wages for the OES survey are straight-time, gross pay, exclusive of premium pay.
Included in the collection of wage data are:
Excluded from the wage data are :
- base rate,
- cost-of-living allowances,
- guaranteed pay,
- hazardous-duty pay, incentive pay including commissions and production bonuses, and
- on-call pay, and
- back pay,
- jury duty pay,
- overtime pay,
- severance pay,
- shift differentials,
- nonproduction bonuses, and
- tuition reimbursements.
How long has the OES survey collected wage data?
The OES survey collected both occupational employment and occupational wage data nationwide for the first time in 1996. Prior to 1996, occupational employment estimates by industry were the only national OES estimates produced by the BLS.
What are mean wages? What are median wages?
The OES program produces estimates of wages by occupation; i.e., the wages paid to wage or salary employees in a given occupation in the U.S., in a particular State, or in a particular industry. These occupational wage estimates are either estimates of mean wages or percentiles, such as the median wage.
- A mean wage is an average wage. An occupational mean wage estimate is calculated by summing the wages of all the employees in a given occupation and then dividing the total wages by the number of employees.
- A median wage is a boundary. An occupational median wage estimate is the boundary between the highest paid 50% and the lowest paid 50% of workers in that occupation. Half of the workers in a given occupation earn more than the median wage, and half the workers earn less than the median wage. For more information, see the page on percentiles.
How is the OES survey conducted?
The OES survey is a semi-annual mail survey of non-farm establishments. The BLS produces the survey materials and selects the establishments to be surveyed. The sampling frame (the list from which establishments to be surveyed are selected) is derived from the list of establishments maintained by State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) for unemployment insurance purposes. Establishments to be surveyed are selected in order to obtain data from every metropolitan area and State, across all surveyed industries, and from establishments of varying sizes. The SWAs mail the survey materials to the selected establishments and make follow-up calls to request data from non-respondents or to clarify data. The collected data are used to produce occupational estimates at the National, State, and sub-State levels.
When will this year's OES estimates be available?
The OES program releases estimates every year in the second quarter.
How does the OES program classify occupations?
The May 2006 OES Estimates were produced using the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The SOC system, which is being adopted by all Federal statistical agencies for reporting occupational data, consists of 821 detailed occupations, grouped into 449 broad occupations, 96 minor groups, and 23 major groups. The OES program provides occupational employment and wage estimates at the major group and detailed occupation level. Due to the OES survey's transition to the SOC system, estimates from 1999 and subsequent years are not directly comparable with previous years' OES estimates, which were based on a classification system having 7 major occupational groups and 770 detailed occupations. The detailed SOC occupations are allocated among these twenty-three major groups:
- 11-0000 Management Occupations
- 13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations
- 15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations
- 17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations
- 19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations
- 21-0000 Community and Social Services Occupations
- 23-0000 Legal Occupations
- 25-0000 Education, Training and Library Occupations
- 27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations
- 29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations
- 31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations
- 33-0000 Protective Service Occupations
- 35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations
- 37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations
- 39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations
- 41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations
- 43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations
- 45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations
- 47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations
- 49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations
- 51-0000 Production Occupations
- 53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations
- 55-0000 Military Specific Occupations (not surveyed in OES).
Is the OES classification system compatible with other occupational classification systems?
Yes. The classification system used since 1999 is compatible with the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The SOC system will be used by all Federal statistical agencies for reporting occupational data. The old OES classification system is compatible with the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification system and the U.S. Bureau of the Census occupational classifications. By using a “crosswalk” to the SOC or Census system users can compare OES estimates with occupational data from other sources. The NOICC Crosswalk & Data Center Home Page is the source of various “crosswalks” that are used to link the occupational classifications of one system to those of another.
How does the OES program define industry classifications? What is the NAICS?
The OES program uses definitions of industries found in the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The NAICS is used throughout the federal government to group establishments into industries. The NAICS structure makes it possible to collect and calculate establishment data by broad industrial Sectors (labeled 11 through 92), Sub-sectors (the 3-digit NAICS levels), Industry Groups (the 4-digit NAICS levels), and NAICS Industries (the 5-digit level). See the North American Industry Classification System, 2002 (Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget), available in many libraries. The OES survey produces occupational employment and wage estimates for sector, 3, 4, and selected 5-digit NAICS industrial groups. (Note: OES estimates of government employment and wages do not correspond to the NAICS. In the case of government, the OES survey produces occupational employment and wage estimates for Local Government, State Government, and Federal Government.)
What industries are surveyed? What industries are not surveyed?
The OES survey collects occupational employment and wage data from establishments in nonfarm industries. The OES survey produces estimates of occupational employment and wages for sector, 3, 4, and selected 5-digit industrial groups. The sectors are: Forestry and logging; Mining; Utilities; Construction; Manufacturing; Wholesale trade; Retail trade; Transportation and warehousing; Information; Finance and insurance; Real estate and Rental and leasing; Professional, scientific, and technical services; Management of companies and enterprises; Administrative and support and Waste management and remediation services; Educational services; Health care and social assistance; Arts, entertainment, and recreation; Accommodation and food services; Other services (except public administration); and Government.
The OES program does not survey establishments in NAICS 111 (Crop production); NAICS 112 (Animal production); NAICS 114 (Fishing, hunting, and trapping); and NAICS 814 (Private households).
Does the BLS make OES estimates available in print or electronic form?
The BLS makes OES estimates available via this Internet site, in publication, and in electronic format.
- This Internet site contains cross-industry Occupational Employment and Wage estimates for the U.S., for individual States, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. It also contains industry-specific estimates for sector, 3, 4, and 5-digit NAICS industry groups. Please refer to the table above to determine where to obtain particular OES estimates.
- The OES publication presents employment and wage estimates for selected occupations in selected states, metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, and industries.
- OES estimates are available in electronic format. Current estimates are available at no cost via a download from this website. The BLS can provide historical National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates by Industry in electronic files.
For more information about the OES publication or to request estimates, please contact the OES program at the BLS. Some OES estimates are available from the State Workforce Agencies located in each State.
Can OES data be used to compare changes in employment or wages over time?
Although the OES survey methodology is designed to create detailed cross-sectional employment and wage estimates for the U.S., states, metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, across industry and by industry, it is less useful for comparisons of two or more points in time. Challenges in using OES data as a time series include changes in the occupational, industrial, and geographical classification systems, changes in the way data are collected, changes in the survey reference period, and changes in mean wage estimation methodology, as well as permanent features of the methodology.
Changes in occupational classification The OES survey used its own occupational classification system through 1998. The 1999 OES survey data provide estimates for most of the non-residual occupations in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The 2004 OES data provides estimates for all occupations in the 2000 SOC. Because of these changes, it may be difficult to compare some occupations even if they are found in both classification systems. For example, both the old OES system and the 2000 SOC include the occupation “computer programmers”. However, estimates for this occupation may not be comparable over time because the 2000 SOC has several computer related occupations that were not included in the older classification system. Workers in newly classified occupations, such as systems software engineers and applications software engineers, may have been reported as computer programmers in the past. Therefore, even occupations that appear the same in the two systems may show employment shifts due to the addition or deletion of related occupations.
Changes in industrial classification In 2002, the OES survey switched from the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). As a result, there were changes in many industry groups. Even groups that appear similar between the two industry classifications may have differences because of the way auxiliary establishments are treated. For example, under SIC the industry “grocery stores” included their retail establishments, warehouses, transportation facilities, and administrative headquarters. Under NAICS, the four establishment types would be reported in separate industries. Only the retail establishments would be included in the NAICS industry for “grocery stores.” The change in industrial classification also resulted in changes to the occupations listed on the survey form for a given industry.
Changes in geographical classification In May 2005, the OES survey began using metropolitan area definitions based on new standards and the results of the Census 2000. Prior to 2005, OES had data for 334 metropolitan areas. As of 2006, OES has data for 484 metropolitan areas, including 375 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and 34 metropolitan divisions, which make up eleven of the MSAs.
Changes in the way the data are collected In the past, employment in some occupations in an industry may have been reported in a residual category rather than in the specific occupation. In order to limit the length of most survey forms to 24 pages, the forms list only the occupations that are likely to be found in the employer's industry. Prior to 2001, if an employer had an occupation that was not included on the form, the respondent may have reported the worker in an “all other” or residual category or in a related occupation. Currently, the employer is asked to report detailed occupational information for workers that can not be placed in one of the occupations listed on the form on a separate page. This change may have the effect of showing increased employment in occupations not on the form for a particular industry. In addition, changes to the occupations listed on forms may cause employers to classify workers differently.
Changes in the survey reference period In 2002 the reference months for the OES survey were changed from October, November, and December to May and November in order to reduce seasonal influences. Industries or occupations that have seasonal employment variations between the two sets of reference months will show employment shifts due to the change in the time of year the data were collected.
Changes in mean wage estimation methodology In 2002 the method of calculating mean wages was changed for occupations with any workers earning above $70 per hour in order to remove a downward bias in mean wage estimates. The result of this change may be seen as higher mean wage estimates for some occupations. However, the median and percentile wage estimates would not be affected by this change.
Permanent features of OES methodology The OES methodology that allows such detailed area and industry estimates also makes it difficult to use OES data for comparisons across short time periods. In order to produce estimates for a given reference period, employment and wages are collected from establishments in six semi-annual panels for three consecutive years. Every six months, a new panel of data is added, and the oldest panel is dropped, resulting in a moving average staffing pattern. The three years of employment data are benchmarked to represent the total employment for the reference period. The wages of the older data are adjusted by the Employment Cost Index. This methodology assumes that industry staffing patterns change slowly and that detailed occupational wage rates in an area change at the same rate as the national change in the ECI wage component for the occupational group.
The use of 6 data panels to create a set of estimates means that sudden changes in occupational employment or wages in the population or changes in methodology show up in the OES estimates gradually.
Given the above changes, it is difficult to make conclusive comparisons of OES data over time. However, comparisons of occupations that are not affected by classification changes may be possible if the methodological assumptions hold.
The OES program is considering changes in methodology that would make data useful for time-series comparisons, at least at more aggregated levels, but these are only in early stages of discussion. The Bureau of Labor Statistics at present does not use or encourage the use of OES data for time-series analysis. Where users choose to make such comparisons, we would caution them to note the changes in survey procedures and the limits of the methods used with a pooled sample.
Does OES have historical data available?
OES data from 1998 onward are available as downloadable zipped Excel files at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_dl.htm. Data from 1999 onward are also available as drill-down tables from our homepage at www.bls.gov/oes/#tables. OES has a limited amount of data from before 1998 available upon request. Please note that these data use the older OES occupational classification system and the Standard Industrial Classification system, rather than the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) currently in use.
Data for 1997 include both employment and wage estimates. Cross-industry data are available at the national, state, metropolitan and nonmetropolitan area levels. National industry-based data are available by 2-digit or 3-digit SIC industry.
National employment data by industry are available for 1988 through 1995. These data do not include wage information, information by state or metropolitan area, or cross-industry data. These data consist of industry-based employment estimates by 2-digit and 3-digit SIC industry, with each industry surveyed once every three years. In addition, since not all industries are available in each year, it is not possible to construct occupational employment totals for a given year by summing across industries. As a result, the 1988-1995 estimates are useful mainly to data users interested in occupational staffing patterns for specific industries during this period. The industries available in each year are summarized below:
1987 SIC Code
||1989, 1992, 1995
|Transportation and public utilities
||1988, 1991, 1994
||1988, 1991, 1994
||1988, 1991, 1994
|Finance, insurance, and real estate
|Services (includes health care, except hospitals)
||1989, 1992, 1995
||1988, 1991, 1994
||1988, 1991, 1994
||1988, 1991, 1994
No OES data are available for 1996 or before 1988.
To request OES data for 1997 or 1988-1995 in zipped Excel format, please contact us via email. Please specify which year or years of data you require, and whether you would like national, state, or metropolitan area data (1997 only), or industry-based data by 2-digit or 3-digit SIC (all years).
How should OES data be cited?
The suggested citation for the Occupational Employment Statistics web site is:
“Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Employment Statistics, [date accessed] [http://www.bls.gov/oes/].”
The suggested citation for articles from the Occupational Employment and Wages bulletin is:
“Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Employment and Wages, [year], Bulletin [number], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, [year].”
Is the survey mandatory?
Laws on survey participation vary by state. Please contact your state office representative using the contact information at http://www.bls.gov/bls/ofolist.htm. We greatly appreciate the efforts of our survey respondents and hope that you will choose to participate in the survey. OES estimates are used as a major input into America's Labor Market Information System and the Employment and Training Administration's Foreign Labor Certification, and the estimates are used by business firms and educational institutions nationwide for economic planning and career counseling.
Why does the sum of the areas within a state not equal the statewide employment?
The sum of the areas may differ from statewide employment for several reasons: (1) The totals include data items that are not released separately due to confidentiality and quality reasons; (2) Rounding; (3) Many states include metropolitan areas that cross state lines. These cross-state metropolitan area estimates include data from each state, which should not be included in a total for a single state; and (4) A small number of establishments indicate the state in which their employees are located, but do not indicate the specific metropolitan or nonmetropolitan area in which they are located. Data for these establishments are used in the calculation of the statewide estimates, but are not included in the estimates of any individual area.
Last Modified Date: October 24, 2007